Reconstruction of the Cortes de Arenoso Site (Spain, Utrillas Group, Albian).

Reconstruction of the Cortes de Arenoso Site (Spain, Utrillas Group, Albian).

As promised, this reconstruction is focused in the vegetation rather than the animals. I made this piece in 2015 for my Master’s Thesis. It features a wet interdune, a pond between desert dunes with enough water and humidity to allow the presence of vegetation. I took inspiration from the wet interdunes of Namib’s desert and the Lençóis Maranhenses’s National Park at Brazil.

A wet interdune from the Albian of Spain.

This reconstruction is not based on macrofossils from plants found at the site. Instead, I carried out a palinological study. I spent days looking at fossilized pollen and spores found inside the Utrillas sandstones. The Utrillas Group is a large unit of sandstones and clays of mainly Albian age. In recent years it has been interpreted as dune and interdune deposits.


The outcrop. The white sands are the dune deposits of the Utrillas Group. (Cortes de Arenoso, Castellón).

There are two vegetation groups featured in the picture: The plants found inside the wet interdune and those found outside, which can be seen beyond the dunefield.

Inside the wet interdune, and near the pond I placed the most representative families found in the samples. These are mainly ferns and angiosperms, which would need high levels of humidity. You can see some Cupressaceae plants and cykas, less frequent in the samples.

Outside the interdune and near the coast with the Tethys Ocean, the top of Auracariaceae and Cheirolepidiaceae trees can be seen. These trees are placed near the coast as they thrive in salt-rich soils. Not featured in the picture are the pines and other conifers, which would grow at the mountain ranges at the other side of the dunefield.

1- Auracariaceae & Cheirolepidiaceae. 2- Cupressaceae. 3- Cycadales/Bennettitales. 4- Ferns (Cyatheaceae, Dicksoniaceae, Schizaeaceae & Gleeicheniaceae). 5- Angiosperms (Chloranthaceae).
A figure from my Master’s Thesys. It shows the vegetation inside the interdune and their pollen or spores. Mind the spanish.

This vegetation points to a hot and arid climate. Which could mean that the dunes were part of a much larger desert system.

Two Coloborhynchus are flying over the dunes. This pterosaur is found in England, North Africa, South American and Brazil. It has not been found in Spain but it probably flew over the dunes on their migratory paths.

Next entry: Back to dinos!


Altolaguirre, Y. (2015): Estudio palinológico preliminar del Cretácico Inferior de la sección de Cortes de Arenoso (Castellón). (Master’s Thesys) 59.

Rodríguez‐López, J. P., Melendez, N., de Boer, P. L., & Soria, A. R. (2012): Controls on marine–erg margin cycle variability: aeolian–marine interaction in the mid‐Cretaceous Iberian Desert System, Spain. Sedimentology, 59(2), 466-501.

Reconstruction of the Armuña Site (Campanian, Spain).

Vanished Forests gets it’s first blog entry and paleoartistic reconstruction. Today’s subject is the Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) site of Armuña at the Province of Segovia, a region in central Spain. The site was relatively unknown to the scientific community until the last years.

The landscape near the Village of Armuña. Note the cretaceous carbonates.

The Armuña site has yielded fossil bones, teeth and scales from actinopterygii fishes, turtles, crocodilians, lizards, mosasaurs, ornithischians, sauropods and theropods. However, the genus of most of them remains unknown. The fossils are scarce, often damaged, and never found showing anatomical connection. The site is found within the sands of the Vegas de Matute Formation, a unit composed of sandstones, clays and silts. It’s interpreted as fluvial deposits with some degree of marine influence. If anyone wants more taxonomic or geological info you can find it at Perez-García et al., 2015.

With this information at hand I reconstructed a little Campanian scene showing the shore of a river which would empty into the Tethys Ocean.

Paleontological reconstruction of the Campanian of Armuña, Segovia.

There is little info about the paleobotanical context, so the flora is restricted to the background of the picture and composed of some generic conifers, cykas and ferns. I promise more detailed flora in the future.

The main subjects here are the dinosaurs. At the left we have a family of little (~6 m long) ornithischians. Most of the studies agree that they likely belong to the genus Rhabdodon, found frequently at the late Cretaceous sites of Europe.

A family of titanosaur sauropods comes into picture from the right. They are bigger than the Rhabdodons, but small compared to the average sauropod. There is no consensus on the genus of these animals but they show similarities with Lirainosaurus. Note the osteoderms and spikes on the backs.

Additionally, you can find a few turtles and a crocodile minding their own business in the lower frame. You can also see a couple of pterosaurs flying far away. I must point that there is no description of pterosaur fossils from the Armuña site, they are there to add dynamism to the picture. Or something like that.

Missing from this picture, but present on the site, are the theropod and the mosasaur. The theropod doesn’t have a genus but seems related to Arcovenator (an abelisaurid theropod from France). The mosasaur is, as you probably know, a marine reptile, so it’s remains probably ended up in the site during one of the sea-influence episodes or by necrokinetic transport. Who knows? I want to make another reconstruction showing those two together.

Hope you like it.


Hernández, E. C., Sanz, J. L., Ortega, F., & Escaso, F. (2007). Restos de dinosaurios del Cretácico superior de Armuña (Segovia). In Cantera Paleontológica (pp. 133-142). Diputación Provincial de Cuenca Cuenca, Spain.

Pérez-García, A., Ortega, F., Bolet, A., Escaso, F., Houssaye, A., Martínez-Salanova, C. de Miguel Chaves, P. Mocho, I. Narvaez, M. Segura, A. Torices, D. Vidal & J.L. Sanz. (2016). A review of the upper Campanian vertebrate site of Armuña (Segovia Province, Spain). Cretaceous Research, 57, 591-623.

Welcome to Vanished Forests

Welcome to Vanished Forests

Welcome to Vanished Forests. A window to the forests of the past, long vanished from this planet.

With this blog I want to show some of my paleoart. It will be mainly paleoecological reconstructions accompanied with some paleontological and geological info.

Also, bear in mind that english is not my first leanguage. Sorry if some of my wording sounds weird.